Sunday, January 15, 2017

Chilembwe’s continuing struggle for African dignity

On the afternoon of Tuesday 8th November 2016, I took my History of Education first year class at the Catholic University of Malawi to Providence Industrial Mission (PIM). We had read about John Chilembwe as one of Malawi’s early pioneers in modern education, in Kelvin Banda’s 1982 book A Brief History of Education in Malawi. Being no more than 10 kilometres away from campus, we decided it was worthwhile to go and see this historical place.

Our visit had two parts. First, we were given a lecture on who John Chilembwe was and how he founded PIM. The second part was a tour of the place. The lecture was fascinating. It was delivered by Mr George Nasolo, a teacher at the local primary school, a historian of Chilembwe, and a resource person at PIM. Mr Nasolo has spent a lifetime researching Chilembwe. My students found it disconcerting that while Mr Nasolo possesses encyclopaedic knowledge on Chilembwe, he has never written a book on him.

Mr George Nasolo. Photo copyright Steve Sharra
There are quite a few books and scholarly articles on Chilembwe, not to mention scores of newspaper articles published in John Chilembwe Day Supplements come every January 15th. Most notable among the books is George Shepperson and Thomas Price’s Independent African, published in 1958, as well as DD Phiri’s Let Us Die For Africa, first published in 1976 under the title Malawians to Remember – John Chilembwe. There is also George Simeon Mwase’s 1967 book Strike a Blow and Die, edited and introduced by Robert I Rotberg.

Amongst the scholarly articles is one by the late Dr. Mekki Mtewa, published in 1977, which I discussed in a 2007 blog article. Then there are others by Robert Rotberg and David Stuart-Mogg, and many more. DD Phiri published a play titled Let Us Fight For Africa, based on Chilembwe’s story. Phiri wrote in his Daily Times column of Wednesday 11th January 2017 that Chancellor College Publications had translated Let Us Fight For Africa into Chichewa, as Tiwombole Africa.

That Tuesday afternoon on 8th November 2016, Mr Nasolo told us things that have become common knowledge about Chilembwe, and things that are not well known about him. The remainder of this article is based on what Mr Nasolo told us, based on his research. It may be corroborated with what has been published elsewhere, but it may also contradict accepted wisdom on Chilembwe. Research on and interest in Chilembwe has been growing in recent years, which means the various Chilembwe narratives will be subjected to critical appraisal, both academic and journalistic. Malawian film makers Charles Shemu Joyah and Muti Phoya have been planning Chilembwe films in their respective rights.

Early on in his talk, Mr Nasolo corrected an error about Chilembwe’s birthplace, which says he was born near Mbombwe Hill. He said there was no hill called Mbombwe, but rather a stream not too far from where we were. He said Joseph Booth, the white evangelist who groomed Chilembwe and took him to America, was in fact an Australian. He said he had not been able to establish how come Booth took Chilembwe to America rather than to Autsralia.

Mr Nasolo said he had also been unable to establish with certainty that the group Chilembwe sent to steal guns and ammunition at Mandala actually succeeded in stealing guns. He said at the onset of the first World War, a war Africans were forced to fight alongside their oppressors, Chilembwe sent a letter to the German Army in Tanganyika. He sent the letter through Yotamu Bango, who walked from Chiradzulu to Tanganyika. Chilembwe was seeking the support of the Germans in his own struggle against the British. Chilembwe never heard from Bango again, and nothing is known as to what happened to the letter.

Nasolo narrated events leading to the killing of William Jarvis Livingstone, a cruel estate manager, and grandson of Scottish explorer David Livingstone, according to George Shepperson’s foreword to DD Phiri’s 1999 edition of Let Us Die For Africa. The killing, according to Nasolo, involved the connivance of Livingstone’s African cook, Lanjesi. Lanjesi was in turn executed by Livingstone’s white colleagues after he failed to say what he knew about how Livingstone was killed.

According to Nasolo, Livingstone’s house in Magomero stands to this day. It is said to have a pit inside it, believed to be where Livingstone dumped bodies of Africans he routinely killed. His grandchildren visited Magomero recently and asked to perform a rite inside the house, according to Nasolo. He said the government did not permit them to do so. He did not elaborate why.

Nasolo also pointed out that Chilembwe’s descendants dispute the accepted narrative that Chilembwe was killed. They say he fled to Mozambique. Nasolo said there was no evidence for that version. He said his research shows that Chilembwe was caught as he was about to cross into Mozambique, headed towards East Africa. They shot him dead, and took his corpse to Mulanje boma. There the governor was unhappy that he had been killed, preferring he had been caught alive to answer for Livingstone's murder. His corpse was thrown across from what is today Mulanje Prison, in Esperance Estate. He had a son and two daughters. The son died in 1976, having lived in South Africa for many years.

The PIM Church rebuilt between 1928 and 1933
What Chilembwe built at PIM was destroyed by the colonialists in response to the 1915 uprising. But PIM still stands to this day, owing in large part to Dr. Daniel Malikebu. According to Nasolo, Dr. Malikebu has told his own life’s story in a book titled My Vision. Nasolo explained that Dr. Malikebu also studied in the United States, having walked on foot from Chiradzulu to Dar es Salaam, from where he did odd jobs to enable him buy ship tickets to the Britain, and onward to the United States. He got his medical degree from Meharry Medical College, in 1911.

When he finished his medical degree, Malikebu announced that he wanted a wife before returning home to the then Nyasaland. He was taken to Spelman College, an institution for black women in the US. The women were asked to line up for Malikebu to choose one. He settled for a Ms Zeto, from Zaire. The couple were denied entry into Nyasaland in 1921. They went to Liberia instead, where Malikebu practised medicine. A number of Africans petitioned the government to allow Malikebu and his wife into Malawi, and they arrived on 3rd June, 1926. It was under Malikebu’s leadership that PIM was rebuilt. The magnificent church that stands at PIM today was constructed by the Africans themselves.

This year, 2017, marks 102 years since the Chilembwe Uprising. It is a part of Malawian history that has been subjected to growing research, revision, and renewed interest. But there has also been a growing scepticism and ambivalence amongst some Malawians. Criticisms have been levelled at Chilembwe for the violence he resorted to against European brutality. There have also been claims that Chilembwe did not have a nationalist vision, as his struggle was localised to his immediate environs in Chiradzulu.

In today’s Sunday Times, Eston Kakhome has written a strongly-worded argument against holding up Chilembwe as a hero. He argues that Kamuzu achieved much more than Chilembwe, and is more deserving to be on the newly introduced K2000 note, than Chilembwe. He calls the elevation of Chilembwe into a national hero, with a national holiday and his face on Malawi’s highest currency denomination, a distortion of Malawi’s history. Other attacks on Chilembwe’s legacy are appearing on social media with increasing frequency.

Sanjika Rock, where Chilembwe is said to have spend countless hours studying and praying.
 Photo credit Steve Sharra
These are criticisms that appear to come from people who have not read deeply into Chilembwe and the era he lived in. In his introduction to Let Us Die For Africa, DD Phiri writes that that the title is taken from Chilembwe’s speech delivered on the eve of the uprising. That alone shows how Pan-Africanist Chilembwe’s worldview was. He has been called a Pan-Africanist by scholars who have researched his story, including Shepperson.

That Chilembwe used violence against the settler colonialists sounds unpalatable to our 21st century sensibilities, but this must be analysed in the context of the Africa Chilembwe lived in. Africans were subjected to physical and psychological violence every day of their lives, by foreigners who invaded their lands and dehumanised them. He may have made mistakes, but the broader vision of his struggle far outweighs his shortcomings as a leader.

Comparing Chilembwe to Kamuzu is to judge two different people who lived into two different epochs. A more productive exercise would be to look at the ways in which the two men contributed, in their different ways, to the founding of the country we have today. Chilembwe was driven by a profound desire for dignity for African people. There are things that Kamuzu did that dehumanised Malawians and flew in the face of what Chilembwe fought for.

Today, Africa’s struggle is for human dignity, long denied through educational, political and economic systems that glorify and reify Eurocentrism at the expense of the continent. It is not uncommon to hear young Malawians today say Chilembwe acted too soon; he should have allowed the whites to continue “civilising” and “developing” us. Too many Malawian elites go about life oblivious of the history that gave us freedom from colonial rule. Too many Malawian elites have no shared appreciation of Chilembwe’s struggle for the dignity of Africans, and how that struggle continues to this day.

Note: Since publishing this piece, I have heard from Arthur Nanthuru, a Malawian attorney, who reports being in possesion of , in his words, "a copy of an inquest report on Chilembwe's death. He and his brother were identified during the inquest which took place on 4th February 1915 at Mulanje boma. They had been shot dead the previous day by Constable Garnet Kaduya." 

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شركة مكافحة حشرات بالخبر تقدم لكم العديد من الخدمات المميزة، حيث أن الشركة تستطيع مكافحة النمل الابيض بالقطيف بالإضافة إلى كافة أنواع الحشرات الأخرى بكل سهولة وبأحدث الإمكانيات مثل مكافحة البق بالقطيف ومكافحة الصراصير بالقطيف ومكافحة الصراصير بالقطيف ولها فروع مثل شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام شركة مكافحة حشرات بالخبر
شركة مكافحة البق بالدمام

eman2017 said...

شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالدمام
افضل شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالقطيف شركة  انوار طيبة ونصلك اينما كنت نستخدم افضل المبيدات للقضاء علي الحشرات النمل والصراصير وبق الفراش والوزع والنمل الابيض وجميع الحشرات الزاحفة ,مكافحة جميع انواع الحشرات باستخدام افضل المبيدات المستوردة والمحلية لضمان القضاء علي الحشرات مع الضمان وخصومات هائلة شركة مكافحة حشرات بالقطيف
شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالخبر
شركات مكافحة حشرات ورش مبيدات بالدمام هل تبحث عن شركة مكافحة حشرات بالسعودية هل لديك نمل في المطبخ او حشرة البق في الخشب؟ هل عندك صراصير او نمل او فئران وتفسد عليك حياتك في منزلك او شركتك؟ لا تقلق فهناك العديد من شركات مكافحة الحشرات في السعودية وأيضا يوجد العديد من شركة رش مبيدات ومكافحة الحشرات بالدمام شركة مكافحة البق بالجبيل

eman2017 said...

شركة عزل اسطح بالدمام
عزيزي العميل نرحب بكم في شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالجبيل هل تعاني من إرتفاع ... شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالخبر شركه تسربات  شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالجبيل
شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالخبر
هل تعبت عن البحث على شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالجبيل انتا الان مع شركة الافضل ... شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالدمام هى واحده من افضل الشركات شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالدمام

eman2017 said...

شركة تنظيف خزانات بالدمام
التطور المستمر للشركة سواء من الناحية التكنولوجية أو الميدانية فكلاً منهما يعطي فائدة كبرى للأخرى، حيث تجد أن التكنولوجيا الحديثة التي تستخدمها شركة تنظيف خزانات بالدمام بالمعدات والأجهزة سهلت الأمر كثيراً في ميدان العمل عند تنظيف الخزانات شركة عزل خزانات بالدمام
شركة تنظيف خزانات بالخبر
مراعاة الشركة للمعايير والمقاييس الخاص بالسلامة لإعطاء أفضل النتائج، وما كان لنا سوى أن نهتم بذكر تلك النقاط عن كيفية عمل شركة غسيل خزانات بالقطيف شركة تنظيف خزانات بالقطيف

eman2017 said...

قبطان الخليج -0504353061-يُعد الأثاث من أكثر الأشياء التي تحتاج إلى حرص ودقة بالغة عند القيام بنقلها شركة نقل عفش بالظهران
تحرص على تقديم الضمان اللازم عن العمل الذي تقوم به لعملائها الكرام، فالضمان بدوره يطمئن العميل وفي النفس الوقت يضمن مصداقية الشركة شركة نقل اثاث بالظهران

eman2017 said...

التغليف للأجهزة الكهربائية يتم كما لو أنك قمت عميلنا الكريم بشراء الجهاز جديد، في البداية نقوم فى شركه نقل عفش بالظهران بفصله ومن ثم تنظيفه ومن ثم التغليف باستخدام الفلين والذي يقوم بإحاطة الجهاز مع ضمان عدم تعرضه للكسر أو الخدش ومن ثم يتم وضعه في أحد الصناديق ذات الحجم المناسب له ومن ثم نقوم بربطه بالحبال. شركة نقل عفش بالدمام
شركة نقل اثاث بالدمام
افضل شركة نقل اثاث بالدمام وشركه نقل عفش بالخبر والقطيف  والامر ليس قاصرا على الدمام  وانما لدينا فروع اخرى بالجبيل والقطيف والاحساء  و نحن من أوائل الناس كــ شركة نقل عفش بالخبر والدمام لدينا خبرة متطورة في خدمات نقل اثاث السكنى والتجاري والفندقي بكل عناية ومهنية لعملائنا الكرام بالاعتماد على تكنولوجيا النقل من الباب إلى الباب باستخدام أحدث الآليات في النقل لضمان أمان خدمة النقل في اقل وقت واقل تكاليف أرخص شركة نقل عفش بالدمام

eman2017 said...

شركة نقل عفش بالجبيل
شركتنا شركة نقل اثاث بالجبيل الأفضل كونها تنظم من عملها، وتنظم من عمالتها، فكل عامل له عمل مخصص يقوم به. شركة نقل اثاث بالجبيل

eman2017 said...

شركة نقل اثاث بالخبر
دور شركة نقل أثاث بالقطيف في عملية نقل العفش شركة نقل عفش بالخبر
شركة نقل اثاث بالقطيف
أن العشوائية والعمل بدون تخطيط ووعي يكون مصيرهُ النهائي الفشل التام لا محالة من ذلك، لذلك فقد عمدت شركة نقل عفش بالخبر على أن تعمل وفقًا لاستراتيجية مُحددة شركة نقل عفش بالقطيف
شركة نقل اثاث برأس تنورة

eman2017 said...

يمكن تعريف الشحن المحدود الذي تقدمه شركه نقل اثاث بالدمام بكونه ما يقتصر على نقل ما قد يحتاجه العميل من أثاث كالأجهزة الكهربائية أو الأثاث الخشبية حتى وإن كان لقطع غيرة ومدودة منه. شركة نقل عفش بالدمام
شركة نقل اثاث بالدمام
فريق عمل شركة نقل عفش بالدمام نعرف جميعًا أن موظفي وعُمال الشركة هم الأيد المُحركة لها، والتي تلعب الدور الأكبر في مدى نجاحها واستمراره أرخص شركة نقل عفش بالدمام

eman2017 said...

انوار طيبة أفضل شركة نظافة بالدمام متخصصة في مجال التنظيف بالدمام والمناطق المجاورة فنحن شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالدمام نقوم أيضاً بتنظيف (فلل– شقق- منازل- بيوت- المجالس- العمائر- الشركات – المطاعم – الفنادق- المحال التجارية) وجميع الأماكن التي تحتاج للتنظيف، وتقوم الشركة بتنظيف منزلك بأحدث الماكينات شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالدمام
شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالخبر
شركة تنظيف بالخبر تقدم أسعار مميزة لعملائها فهي أرخص شركة تنظيف مكيفات حيث تقوم بتنظيف المنازل والشقق والفلل والكنب والسجاد والمسابح والمدارس والمساجد والخزانات بالدمام و بالخبر و بالجبيل و بالقطيف تستخدم أجود أنواع المنظفات فهي افضل شركة نظافة بالخبر شركة غسيل مكيفات بالدمام
شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالقطيف
مؤسسة انوار طيبة-ارخص شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالقطيف والدمام والجبيل – افضل شركة تنظيف مكيفات السبلت بالدمام والقطيف، وتنظيف وصيانة وغسيل المكيفات سبليت ومركزية ومخفي وكاست ودولابي وشباك وتركيب جميع المكيفات شركتنا افضل شركة غسيل مكيفات بالدمام والجبيل تتعامل معكم شركة تنظيف مكيفات برأس تنورة

eman2017 said...

شركة تنظيف كنب بالدمام عندما تريد نظافه الكنب الموجود بمنزلك لاتنزعج اليك أفضل شركه تنظيف مكيفات بالدمام باحدث المكينات وافضل طرق التنظيف افضل شركة تنظيف كنب بالدمام نحن بعون الله من اكبر شركات التنظيف الكنب والمجالس بالدمام والخبر والقطيف والجبيل متخصصون فى مجال تنظيف جميع الاقمشه من ستائر ومجالس شركة تنظيف كنب بالدمام
شركة غسيل كنب بالدمام
افضل شركة تنظيف بالدمام و بالخبر ارخص الاسعار ، لنظافة المنازل و الشقق اهمية كبيرة في صحة الاسرة ، ولذلك اخترنا في الوطنية للنظافة بالمنطقة الشرقية افضل شركة تنظيف بالدمام و بالخبر ان نقدم لاهل الدمام والخبر خدمات تنظيف شاملة مع التعقيم لكافة مكونات المنزل العصري من اثاث او مفروشات او حمامات و مطابخ وتنظيف سيراميك وجلى بلاط شركة تنظيف كنب بالقطيف

eman2017 said...

شركة مكافحة حشرات بالخبر تقدم لكم العديد من الخدمات المميزة، حيث أن الشركة تستطيع مكافحة النمل الابيض بالقطيف بالإضافة إلى كافة أنواع الحشرات الأخرى بكل سهولة وبأحدث الإمكانيات مثل مكافحة البق بالقطيف ومكافحة الصراصير بالقطيف ومكافحة الصراصير بالقطيف ولها فروع مثل شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام شركة مكافحة حشرات بالقطيف
شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام. ان شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام تعلم جيدا ان الحشرات من أكثر الكائنات الحية انتشارا وتواجد على سطح الأرض حيث انها تعيش وتتكيف في المناخات المختلفة وتعرف شركة رش مبيدات بالدمام ان بعض الحشرات يعيش في جميع الاماكن فبعض الحشرات تستطيع الطيران فذلك يجعلها تنجو ولكن تفضي عليها من خلال افضل شركة مكافحة حشرات بالمنطقة الشرقية ، شركة الشرق الاوسط للنظافة ومكافحة الحشرات شركة مكافحة حشرات بالخبر
شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام
شركة مكافحة حشرات برأس تنورة

eman2017 said...

ان حشرة البق تشكل خطورة كبيرة علي المنازل وحصوصا الاطفال لذلك يمكنك ايجاد الحل الامثل من خلال شركة مكافحة البق بالدمام حيث تضم الشركة افضل الخبراء فهي افضل شركة مكافحة البق بالدمام شركة مكافحة البق بالدمام
شركة مكافحة البق بالخبر
شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالدمام
افضل شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالقطيف شركة  انوار طيبة ونصلك اينما كنت نستخدم افضل المبيدات للقضاء علي الحشرات النمل والصراصير وبق الفراش والوزع والنمل الابيض وجميع الحشرات الزاحفة ,مكافحة جميع انواع الحشرات باستخدام افضل المبيدات المستوردة والمحلية لضمان القضاء علي الحشرات مع الضمان وخصومات هائلة شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالقطيف
شركات مكافحة حشرات ورش مبيدات بالدمام هل تبحث عن شركة مكافحة حشرات بالسعودية هل لديك نمل في المطبخ او حشرة البق في الخشب؟ هل عندك صراصير او نمل او فئران وتفسد عليك حياتك في منزلك او شركتك؟ لا تقلق فهناك العديد من شركات مكافحة الحشرات في السعودية وأيضا يوجد العديد من شركة رش مبيدات ومكافحة الحشرات بالدمام شركة رش مبيدات بالدمام

eman2017 said...

شركة نقل عفش بالدمام
عالميه الدمام- 0542613483 - افضل شركات نقل العفش بالمنطقه الشرقيه شركة نقل اثاث بالدمام
ارخص شركة نقل اثاث بالدمام
شركة نقل اثاث بالجبيل
أن الشركة تتمتع بالالتزام التام بمواعيدها، فلا تعمل على مخالفتها تحت أي ظرف من الظروف وهذا بداية من عملية الاتصال وحتى إنهاء الخدمة تمامًا، كما أن فريق العمل ذو حجم كبير نسبيًا نقل عفش بالخبر
شركة نقل عفش بالجبيل
شركة نقل عفش بالجبيل

eman2017 said...

شركتنا شركة نقل اثاث بالجبيل الأفضل كونها تنظم من عملها، وتنظم من عمالتها، فكل عامل له عمل مخصص يقوم به. نقل عفش بالدمام
نقل اثاث بالدمام
نقل عفش بالاحساء
لن تجد أجدر من شركه نقل عفش بالدمام قادرة على إتمام تلك المهمة حيث ثقة عملائها الكرام على المحك ولن تقبل تحت أي حال من الأحوال أن يخيب ظن العملاء نقل اثاث بالاحساء

eman2017 said...


عالميه الدمام- 0542613483 - افضل شركات نقل العفش بالمنطقه الشرقيه شركة نقل عفش بالجبيل
هل تبحث عن شركة مناسبة للقيام بنقل عفش منزلك، هل تخشى من تجارب الأصدقاء المؤلمة مع شركات نقل العفش؟ شركة نقل عفش بالقطيف
لا تقلق عزيزي العميل، فأنت الآن في المكان الصحيح، حيث جاءت إليك شركة نقل عفش بالدمام شركة نقل اثاث بالخبر

eman2017 said...

يمكن تعريف الشحن المحدود الذي تقدمه شركه نقل اثاث بالدمام بكونه ما يقتصر على نقل ما قد يحتاجه العميل من أثاث كالأجهزة الكهربائية أو الأثاث الخشبية حتى وإن كان لقطع غيرة ومدودة منه. شركة نقل عفش بالخبر
نقل عفش بالخبر
شركة نقل عفش فى بالخبر
وجدير بالذكر أنه بعد الرفع يقوم العمال بتركيب الأثاث كما كان شركات نقل العفش بالخبر

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3nod maka said...

الان و باقل الاسعار و افضل الخصومات الان و علي اعلي مستوي الان شركة تنظيف مكة احصل الان علي افضل مكافحة حشرات بمكة الخدمات المتميزه الان في اعمال تنظيف رخام بمكة التنظيف و بافضل ادقان الان من خلال متخصصين الان شركة تنظيف كنب مكة و بافضل الاسعار الان و بافضل مكافحه عزل خزانات بمكة الان للحشرات من خلال موقعنا تواصلو معنا الان